LPIC 1 Español Version 5 2018

LPIC 101 Version 5

   Este libro es un conjunto de blogs, libros y posts que he encontrado en Internet

Mi idea y mi deseo es hacer un libro opensource sobre la certificación LPIC 1 de la versión 5, recién salida este Noviembre del 2018.

El problema es que ninguna editorial esta sacando la version 5 y ademas d eso son carisimos. Que mejor que algo comunitario que se actualiza solo y poder imprimirlo por unos 15€.

Linux al fin y al cabo tambiem empezo asi 😉


Espero la colaboracion de cualquiera que pueda ampliarlo, mejorarlo y/o actualizarlo.

Me podeis pedir solicitud como colaborador enviandome un email a:

duven@protonmail.com

 

   1 Introducción

   2 Información de la versión

   3 Exámenes

   4 Adición

   5 Traducciones de objetivos

   6 Objetivos: Examen 101

        Tema 101: Arquitectura del sistema

            101.1 Determinar y configurar los ajustes de hardware

            101.2 Arrancar el sistema

            101.3 Cambiar los niveles de ejecución / objetivos de arranque y apagar o reiniciar el sistema

       Tema 102: Instalación de Linux y gestión de paquetes

           102.1 Diseño de la distribución del disco duro

           102.2 Instalar un gestor de arranque

           102.3 Administrar bibliotecas compartidas

           102.4 Usar la gestión de paquetes de Debian

           102.5 Utilizar la gestión de paquetes RPM y YUM

           102.6 Linux como invitado de virtualización

       Tema 103: Comandos GNU y Unix

           103.1 Trabajo en la línea de comandos

           103.2 Procesar flujos de texto utilizando filtros

           103.3 Realizar la gestión básica de archivos

           103.4 Usar flujos, tuberías y redirecciones

           103.5 Crear, monitorear y matar procesos

           103.6 Modificar las prioridades de ejecución del proceso

           103.7 Buscar archivos de texto usando expresiones regulares

           103.8 Edición de archivos básicos

      Tema 104: Dispositivos, Sistemas de Archivos Linux, Estándar de Jerarquía de Sistemas de  Archivos

          104.1 Crear particiones y sistemas de archivos

          104.2 Mantener la integridad de los sistemas de archivos

          104.3 Controlar el montaje y desmontaje de sistemas de ficheros

          104.4 Eliminado

          104.5 Administrar los permisos y la propiedad de los archivos

          104.6 Crear y cambiar enlaces duros y simbólicos

          104.7 Buscar archivos de sistema y colocarlos en la ubicación correcta

   

 7 Objetivos: Examen 102

       Tema 105: Shells y Scripts de Shell

          105.1 Personalizar y usar el entorno del shell

          105.2 Personalizar o escribir scripts simples

     Tema 106: Interfaces de usuario y escritorios

         106.1 Instalar y configurar X11

         106.2 Escritorios gráficos

         106.3 Accesibilidad

     Tema 107: Tareas administrativas

         107.1 Administrar cuentas de usuario y de grupo y archivos de sistema relacionados

         107.2 Automatizar las tareas de administración del sistema mediante la programación de tareas

         107.3 Localización e internacionalización

     Tema 108: Servicios esenciales del sistema

         108.1 Mantener la hora del sistema

         108.2 Registro del sistema

         108.3 Conceptos básicos del Agente de transferencia de correo (MTA)

         108.4 Gestión de impresoras e impresión

      Tema 109: Fundamentos de Redes

         109.1 Fundamentos de los protocolos de Internet

         109.2 Configuración de red persistente

         109.3 Solución de problemas básicos de red

         109.4 Configurar DNS del lado del cliente

      Tema 110: Seguridad

         110.1 Realizar tareas de administración de seguridad

         110.2 Configurar la seguridad del host

         110.3 Protección de datos con cifrado

   

8 Preguntas de examenes oficiales 101

9 Pregunas de examenes oficiales 102




1. Introducción.


Este libro es un conjunto de blogs, libros y posts que he encontrado en Internet

Mi idea y mi deseo es hacer un libro opensource sobre la certificación LPIC 1 de la versión 5, recién salida este Noviembre del 2018 


Espero la colaboracion de cualquiera que pueda ampliarlo, mejorarlo y/o actualizarlo.

Me podeis pedir solicitud como colaborador enviandome un email a:

duven@autistici.org 


Las fuentes que de momento voy a usar seguro son:


https://nebul4ck.wordpress.com/lpic-1-400/

https://www.neuronasdigitales.com/lpic-101-1-determinar-y-configurar-el-hardware.html

http://acacha.org/mediawiki/Linux_Professional_Institute_Certificate_1_(LPIC-1)._Examen_101_(Curs)

https://syconet.wordpress.com/2012/08/21/lpic-101-tema-3-determinar-y-configurar-los-parametros-del-hardware/



2. Infomacion de la version.


Los cambios de entre la version 4 y la 5 se pueden consultar aqui:

https://wiki.lpi.org/wiki/LPIC-1_Summary_Version_4.0_To_5.0


Los siguientes cambios constituyen la actualización del examen 101 de la versión 4.0 a la versión 5.0:


   101: Arquitectura del sistema

       101.1 Determinar y configurar los ajustes de hardware

           Eliminado ‘Configurar sistemas con o sin periféricos externos como teclados’.

           Eliminado ‘Conozca las diferencias entre los dispositivos de conexión en frío y los de conexión en caliente’.

       101.2 Arrancar el sistema

           Añadida cobertura de UEFI (igual a la cobertura de la BIOS) y journalctl (con respecto a los eventos de arranque)

       101.3 Cambiar los niveles de ejecución / objetivos de arranque y apagar o reiniciar el sistema

           Mayor conciencia de la diabetes tipo 2.

   102: Instalación de Linux y gestión de paquetes

       102.1 Diseño de la distribución del disco duro

           Añadida la Partición de Sistema EFI (ESP)

       102.2 Instalar un gestor de arranque

           (sin cambios)

       102.3 Administrar bibliotecas compartidas

           (sin cambios)

       102.4. Utilizar la gestión de paquetes de Debian

           Aptitud eliminada

           Añadido el conocimiento de apt.

       102.5 Usar la administración de paquetes RPM y YUM

           Removido yumdownloader

           Añadido Zypper (igual a YUM)

           Añadido el conocimiento de dnf

       102.6 Linux como invitado de virtualización

           Nuevo objetivo (peso: 1)

           Añadidas las especialidades de ejecutar Linux en máquinas virtuales y contenedores en premisa y en la nube.

   103: Comandos GNU y Unix

       103.1 Trabajo en la línea de comandos

           Añadido quoting

           Añadido type y which

       103.2 Procesar flujos de texto utilizando filtros

           Disminución del peso de 3 a 2

           Eliminado expandir, fmt, join, pr y unexpand

           Añadido bzcat, md5sum, sha256sum, sha512sum, xzcat y zcat

       103.3 Realizar la gestión básica de archivos

           Añadido bunzip2 y unxz

       103.4 Usar flujos, tuberías y redirecciones

           (sin cambios)

       103.5 Crear, monitorear y matar procesos

           Añadido watch y tmux

       103.6 Modificar las prioridades de ejecución del proceso

           (sin cambios)

       103.7 Buscar en archivos de texto usando expresiones regulares

           Aumento de peso de 2 a 3

           Añadida la comprensión de las diferencias entre las expresiones regulares básicas y extendidas

           Añadida la comprensión de los conceptos de caracteres especiales, clases de caracteres, cuantificadores y anclas.

           Añadido el uso de expresiones regulares para borrar, cambiar y sustituir texto

       103.8 Edición de archivos básicos

           Cambiar el nombre de ‘Realizar operaciones básicas de edición de archivos usando vi’ a “Edición de archivos básicos”.

           Se ha aclarado la redacción de “Comprender y usar los modos vi”.

           Se han eliminado los comandos vi c y :e!

           Añadido el conocimiento de otros editores comunes (Emacs, nano y vim) y la configuración del editor por defecto (variable de entorno EDITOR).

   104: Dispositivos, Sistemas de Archivos Linux, Estándar de Jerarquía de Sistemas de Archivos

       104.1 Crear particiones y sistemas de archivos

           Eliminado el conocimiento de ReiserFS

           Añadidas tablas de particiones GPT

           Añadido exFAT

           Cambiado el conocimiento de Btrfs a’Conocimientos básicos de las características de Btrfs, incluyendo sistemas de archivos multidispositivo, compresión y subvolúmenes’.

       104.2 Mantener la integridad de los sistemas de archivos

           Eliminados debugfs y dumpe2fs

           Cambiado ‘Herramientas XFS (como xfs_metadump y xfs_info)’ a cobertura de xfs_repair, xfs_fsr y xfs_db

       104.3 Controlar el montaje y desmontaje de sistemas de ficheros

           Añadido el uso de etiquetas y UUIDs para identificar y montar sistemas de archivos.

           Mayor conocimiento de las unidades de montaje systemd

           Añadido blkid e lsblk

       104.4 Administrar cuotas de disco

           Objetivo eliminado (peso anterior: 1)

       104.5 Administrar los permisos y la propiedad de los archivos

           (sin cambios)

       104.6 Crear y cambiar enlaces duros y simbólicos

           (sin cambios)

       104.7 Encontrar archivos de sistema y colocarlos en la ubicación correcta

           (sin cambios)






Cambios en el examen 102


Los siguientes cambios constituyen la actualización del examen 102 de la versión 4.0 a la versión 5.0:


   105: Shells y secuencias de comandos de Shell

       Cambiado el nombre de’Shells, Scripting and Data Management’ a’Shells and Shell Scripting’.

       105.1 Personalizar y usar el entorno del shell

           Listas eliminadas

       105.2 Personalizar o escribir scripts simples

           Añadida la ejecución de comandos encadenados

           Añadido && y |||

       105.3 Gestión de datos SQL

           Objetivo eliminado (peso anterior: 2)

   106: Interfaces de usuario y escritorios

106.1 Instalar y configurar X11

           Se ha eliminado la comprobación de que la tarjeta de vídeo y el monitor son compatibles con un servidor X.

           Eliminado el conocimiento del servidor de fuentes X

           Eliminado xwininfo

           Eliminado xpdyinfo

           Añadida la comprensión de la arquitectura X11

           Añadido sobreescribir aspectos específicos de la configuración de Xorg, como el diseño del teclado.

           Mayor comprensión de los componentes de los entornos de escritorio, como los administradores de pantallas y de ventanas.

           Se ha añadido la gestión del acceso al servidor X y a las aplicaciones de visualización en servidores X remotos.

           Añadido el conocimiento de Wayland.

           Añadido /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/

           Añadido ~/.xsession-errors

           Añadido xauth

       106.2 Sobremesas gráficas

           Eliminado el contenido antiguo (configuración de los gestores de pantalla / LightDM)

           Cambiado para cubrir el conocimiento de los principales entornos de escritorio y protocolos para acceder a sesiones de escritorio remotas.

           Añadido KDE, Gnome, Xfce, X11, XDMCP, VNC, Spice y RDP

       106,3 Accesibilidad

           Eliminado Conocimientos básicos sobre la configuración de la accesibilidad del teclado (AccessX)

           Eliminado Orca, GOK y emacspeak

           Añadido reconocimiento de voz

   107: Tareas administrativas

       107.1 Administrar cuentas de usuario y de grupo y archivos de sistema relacionados

           (sin cambios)

       107.2 Automatizar las tareas de administración del sistema mediante la programación de tareas

           Se ha eliminado el anacron

           Añadidos temporizadores systemd

           Añadido systemctl y systemd-run

       107,3 Localización e internacionalización

           (sin cambios)

   108: Servicios esenciales del sistema

       108.1 Mantener la hora del sistema

           Añadido chrony (chronyc)

           Añadido timedatectl

       108.2 Registro del sistema

           Aumento de peso de 3 a 4

           Eliminado klogd y syslogd (syslog.conf)

           Cambiado el syslog de tema principal a awareness

           Cambiado el rsyslog de conciencia a tema principal, el enfoque es la configuración básica

           Se agregó el acceso al diario del sistema, incluyendo consultas, filtros, almacenamiento persistente, eliminación de eventos antiguos y recuperación del contenido del diario desde una copia del sistema.

           Añadida la comprensión de la interacción de rsyslog con systemd-journald

           Añadido systemd-cat

       108.3 Fundamentos del agente de transferencia de correo (MTA)

           qmail eliminado

       108.4 Gestión de impresoras e impresión

           (sin cambios)

   109: Fundamentos de Redes

       109,1 Fundamentos de los protocolos de Internet

           (sin cambios)

       109.2 Configuración de red persistente

           Cambiar el nombre de’Configuración básica de red’ a’Configuración de red persistente’.

           Cambiado el enfoque de ver los ajustes para administrar la configuración de red persistente.

           Eliminada ip, route, ping, ifconfig (aún en 109.3)

           Añadida configuración de red ethernet y wi-fi usando NetworkManager

           Añadido el conocimiento de la red de sistemas

           Añadido /etc/resolv.conf, nmcli y hostnamectl

       109.3 Solución de problemas básicos de red

           Cambiado para centrarse en la interacción manual con interfaces de red utilizando iproute2

           Cambió la cobertura de los comandos de las herramientas de la red a la concienciación

           Extirpada la excavación y el huésped (aún en 109.4)

           Eliminado ifup y ifdown (aún en 109.2)

           Añadido ss

       109.4 Configurar DNS del lado del cliente

           Añadidos errores de depuración relacionados con la resolución de nombres

           Añadido systemd.socket

           Mayor conocimiento de los problemas resueltos por el sistema

   110: Seguridad

       110.1 Realizar tareas de administración de seguridad

           (sin cambios)

       110.2 Configurar la seguridad del host

           Eliminado /etc/inetd.d/

           Eliminado /etc/inetd.conf

       110.3 Protección de datos con cifrado

           Aumento de peso de 3 a 4

           Añadido el uso de GPG para encriptar, descifrar, firmar y verificar archivos.

           Agregado gpg-agente

           Añadidas cifras adicionales para las claves SSH (~/.ssh/id_ecdsa, id_ecdsa.pub, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519, id_ed25519.pub, /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key, ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub, /etc/sshssh/sshost_ed25519_key y ssh_host_host_ed25519_key.pub)



3. Exámenes


Para obtener la certificación LPIC-1, el candidato debe aprobar los exámenes 101 y 102.

Se han creado 300 pregunas por cada examen y se preguntan 60 de ellas.

Con lo cual si encuentras en Internet tests con mas d 300 preguntas, ten por seguro que algunas estaran obsoletas o te han mezclado preguntas de otros exámenes. 

La máxima puntuacion son 800 puntos.


















6. Objetivos: Examen 101


Tema 101: Arquitectura del Sistema

101.1 Determinar y configurar los ajustes de hardware


Importancia 2


Descripción

Los candidatos deberán ser capaces de determinar y configurar el hardware fundamental del sistema.


Áreas de conocimiento clave:


  1.    Activar y desactivar los periféricos integrados.
  2.    Diferenciar entre los distintos tipos de dispositivos de almacenamiento masivo.
  3.    Determinar los recursos de hardware para los dispositivos.
  4.    Herramientas y utilidades para listar la información de hardware (por ejemplo, lsusb, lspci, etc.).
  5.    Herramientas y utilidades para manipular dispositivos USB.
  6.    Comprensión conceptual de sysfs, udev y dbus.


La siguiente es una lista parcial de los archivos, términos y utilidades utilizados:


  1.    /sys/
  2.    /proc/
  3.    /dev/
  4.    modprobe
  5.    lsmod
  6.    lspci
  7.    lsusb 


Un sistema operativo es el software que hace de enlace entre las aplicaciones de usuario y el hardware. La finalidad de un sistema operativo es ofrecer un conjunto de programas que permetin hacer más fácil y eficiente el uso de un ordenador. Actualmente un ordenador es una máquina compleja que consta de uno o más procesadores, memoria de diferentes tipologías, relojes, periféricos, etc y además son sistemas donde puede trabajar más de uno usuario. Es evidente que se hace necesario que haya alguna solución que permita hacer uso de un ordenador sin necesidad de dominar la complejidad del hardware.


Arquitectura de un sistema operativo

Partes de un sistema operativo:

-Núcleo: es la interfaz de comunicación entre el hardware y el software. – Aplicaciones base: aplicaciones básicas para el correcto funcionamiento del sistema. La mayoria de aplicaciones son GNU



Dos espacios de trabajo:

– Modo supervisor o modo kernel: No tiene restricciones de acceso a la memoria y puede acceder a cualquier dirección, de cualquier proceso, o de cualquier dispositivo. Reservado para el uso del núcleo, de su módulos o de algunos de sus controladores. Programar en este espacio es muy complicado. Se ha de tener mucho cuidado de no interferir entre los diferentes espacios de memoria de procesos. Se ha de diseñar el programa con la idea de no fallar nunca, puesto que un error en el programa implica un error en todo el sistema. 

– Modo de usuario o espacio de usuario: En contraste, el espacio de usuario es la zona donde se ejecutan las aplicaciones de usuario. En la mayoría de sistemas operativos actuales cada proceso tiene su propio espacio de memoria y no puede acceder al espacio de memoria de otros procesos y de esta manera se evita la interferencia entre procesos. La única forma en que un proceso del espacio de usuario puede acceder a la memoria de otros procesos es a través de las llamadas de sistema (interfaces) del sistema operativo, de forma que el sistema operativo puede gestionar el control de acceso a los recursos.


Módulos – Gestión del Hardware

Los controladores o drivers se encargan del acceso controlado al hardware. La mayoría de controladores son módulos del kernel. Estos pueden estar integrados en el mismo núcleo o cargarse en caliente. Se almacenan en /lib/modules y los que están disponibles para nuestro kernel están en \$ /lib/modules/`uname -r`. Las herramientas necesarias para la gestión de los módulos se encuentran en el paquete module-init-tools que por regla general se encuentra incluido en la mayoría de distribuciones. Las principales herramientas son: – lsmod: Muestra la información de /proc/modules. La columna used indica cuantos módulos dependen de ese módulo.

  • insmod: inserta un módulo en el kernel. Si el módulo depende de otros, las dependencias deben estár cargadas antes de ejecutar insmod.
  • modprobe: inserta un módulo en el kernel y carga automáticamente los módulos que dependen de éste. En la carpeta /etc/modprobe.d/ se puede configurar las opciones a la hora de cargar un módulo, o definir una lista negra para especificar que no se cargue un módulo concreto
  • modinfo: muestra la información detallada de un módulo. Interesante para ver en que ruta se encuentra el fichero, o para averiguar para que sirve.
  • rmmod: eliminar un módulo del kernel. Se puede incluir en el fichero /etc/modules que módulos queremos cargar manualmente durante el inicio del sistema. El script que se encarga de esta tarea es /etc/init.d/module-init-tools
  • depmod:  Establece las dependencias entre módulos. Se ejecuta unicamente durante el inicio de sistema. Solo lo ejecutaremos manualmente si modificamos la configuración de los módulos, como modificar el fichero modules.conf o de las carpetas modules.d. Genera el fichero /lib/modules/(kernel-version)/modules.dep


Dispositivos PCI

Antes de la aparición del sistema PnP (mediados de los 90), era tedioso configurar el hardware y a menudo se debía recurrir a los jumpers o a la BIOS. Actualmente la configuración se puede hacer por software y a menudo no hace falta configurar nada ya que gracias a PnP, los dispositivos se configuran solos. Se puede modificar los comportamiento del núcleo con respecto a la detección de hardware cambiando los siguientes parámetros u opciones del núcleo: PCI Devices –> Bus Options –> PCI Access Mode Tenemos 4 opciones: – BIOS – MMConfig – Direct – Any-> Que quiere decir primero MMconfig, después Direct y finalmente BIOS. Es la opción habitual. lspci: muestra información sobre los dispositivos PCI y otros dispositivos del sistema.


lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family DRAM Controller (rev 09)

00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family Integrated Graphics Controller (rev 09)

00:16.0 Communication controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 (rev 04)

00:1a.0 USB controller: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #2 (rev 05)

00:1b.0 Audio device: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family High Definition Audio Controller (rev 05)

00:1c.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family PCI Express Root Port 1 (rev b5)

[……..]

si escribimos:

$ lspci -nn

00:00.0 Host bridge [0600]: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family DRAM Controller [8086:0104] (rev 09)

00:02.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Intel Corporation 2nd Generation Core Processor Family Integrated Graphics Controller [8086:0116] (rev 09)

00:16.0 Communication controller [0780]: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family MEI Controller #1 [8086:1c3a] (rev 04)

00:1a.0 USB controller [0c03]: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family USB Enhanced Host Controller #2 [8086:1c2d] (rev 05)

00:1b.0 Audio device [0403]: Intel Corporation 6 Series/C200 Series Chipset Family High Definition Audio Controller [8086:1c20] (rev 05)


Vemos que cada dispositivo tiene un id único. El formato es: [código] -> [dispositivo:fabricante]. Esta información la extrae del fichero /usr/share/misc/pci.ids y se puede actualizar con el comando update-pciids


Dispositivos USB

En Linux hay diferentes drivers o controladores USB con nombres como UHCI, OHCI, EHCI o R8A66597. La mayoría de sistemas operativos Linux modernos vienen con los drivers USB ya cargados y la gestión de dispositivos USB es automática. Algunos controladores son solo para la versión 1.1 de USB, pero la mayoría también soportan 2.0. Hay que tener en cuenta que una cosa es el bus de comunicación USB y otro el dispositivo que hay conecta, de tal manera que pueden ser necesarios otros drivers o aplicaciones para los usos concretos de cada dispositivo (impresoras, escanners, cámaras digitales…). Si con dispositivo PCI tenemos el comando lspci con USB disponemos del comando lsusb que nos muestra los dispositivos USB que tenemos conectados:

lsusb
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 007 Device 002: ID 03f0:0324 Hewlett-Packard
Bus 007 Device 003: ID 046d:c018 Logitech, Inc. Optical Wheel Mouse
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
[……..]

Antes se gestionaban con las utilidades usbmgr, hotplug, udev…. Desde los kernels 2.6 no es necesario, puesto que integra hotplug y utiliza udev


Sistemas de ficheros especiales


/sys

Sysfs es un sistema de ficheros virtual (solamente existe en RAM) proporcionado por el núcleo del sistema desde la versión 2.6 (año 2003). Sysfs exporta información sobre los dispositivos y sus controladores (drivers) desde el espacio de sistema del núcleo al espacio de usuario. Sysfs apareció durante el desarrollo del núcleo 2.5 (las ramas impares siempre son las de pruebas) con la intención de solucionar los siguientes problemas:

  • Falta de un método unificado para representar las relacionas entre los controladores y los dispositivos de hardware.
  • Faltaba un mecanismo de soporte hotplug estandar
  • procfs estaba pleno de información que no estaba relacionada con los procesos.

Muchas aplicaciones dependen de sysfs para funcionar (p. ej. udev o HAL). Utilizan este sistema de ficheros virtual para acceder a información del hardware y de los controladores del hardware (normalmente módulos del núcleo). En la estructura de la carpeta /sys los directorios organizan los dispositivos, las clases, los buses, los controladores etc. y también establecen las relaciones entre ellos. Los ficheros contienden atributos (cada fichero un atributo).

Carpetas principales:

/sys/devices: Contiene la información de los dispositivos. La mayoría de ficheros del resto de directorios son enlaces simbólicos que apuntan aquí.

/sys/bus: Información de los buses de comunicaciones (USB, PCI….) Los drivers están en /sys/bus/pci/drivers

/sys/block: Dispositivos de bloque. Son enlaces simbólicos a ficheros de la carpeta /sys/devices

/sys/class: muestra los dispositivos agrupados por clases (red, sonido, impresoras….)


/proc procfs es un sistema de ficheros virtual, generado dinánicamente durante el arranque de sistema y almacenado en RAM. Contiene la información de los procesos proporcionada por el núcleo de Linux. Actualmente, además de procesos, contiene información sobre el hardware. Muchas aplicaciones de espacio de usuario se basan en /proc para acceder a la información del núcleo del sistema. Ejemplos: /proc/interrupts /proc/dma /proc/ioports En procfs, cada proceso tiene una carpeta propia, llamados por su PID. En ella contiene información detallada sobre cada uno de ellos. La herramienta sysctl permite modificar los parámetros del kernel sin necesidad de recompilar. Los parámetros se encuentran en forma de ficheros, en /proc/sys. Se puede consultar un listado de todos los parámetros con \$sysctl -a


/dev

Device file system permite al software interactuar con los dispositivos hardware utilizando las mismas llamadas de sistema que se utilizarían para trabajar con ficheros. Hacen de interfaz con los controladores de los dispositivos. Los ficheros pueden ser:


  • Periféricos, como impresoras
  • Dispositivos de almacenamiento
  • Particiones
  • Dispositivos especiales (generadores de números aleatorios, ceros….)
  • Existen tres tipos especiales de dispositivo:
  • Dispositivos de caracteres: les llega el flujo de datos de caracter en caracter. (ttys)
  • Dispositivos de bloque: les llega el flujo de datos en bloques. Soportan acceso aleatorio a los datos. (hds)
  • Pseudo-dispositivos: no corresponden a ningún hardware específico.
  • /dev/null: Acepta todo tipo de datos de entrada y los descarta. No produce ninguna salida
  • /dev/full: Dispositivo que siempre está lleno
  • /dev/loop: Dispositivo de bucle
  • /dev/zero: Produce un flujo de datos continuo de caracteres NULL (cero
  • /dev/random: Produce un flujo de datos de números aleatorios. Bloquea
  • /dev/urandom: Produce un flujo de datos de números aleatorios. No bloquea. Convención de nombres:
  • fb: frame buffer
  • fd: disquete
  • hd: disco duro
  • lp: impresora
  • ttyUSB: conversor serie-usb
  • ttyS: controlador del puerto serire
  • parport,pp: puerto paralelo
  • pt: pseudo terminales
  • sd: controlador de dispositivo de almacenamiento masivo. sda: primer dispositivo registrado. sda1: primera partición del primer dispositivo registrado
  • sg: controlador SCSI genérico
  • sr: controlador ROM (dispositivos ópticos)
  • st: controlador de cintas magnéticas
  • tty: consolas virtuales


































8 Preguntas de examenes oficiales 101



101-400


Number: 101-400


Passing Score: 800


Time Limit: 120 min


File Version: 4.0


101-400


LPI Level 1 Exam 101, Junior Level Linux Certification, Part 1 of 2


Sections


1.System Architecture


2.Linux Installation and Package Management


3.GNU and Unix Commands


4.Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierachy Standard


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QUESTION 1


Which SysV init configuration file should be modified to disable the ctrl-alt-delete key combination?


A./etc/keys


B./proc/keys


C./etc/inittab


D./proc/inittab


E./etc/reboot



QUESTION 2


Which of the following information is stored within the BIOS? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.Boot device order


B.Linux kernel version


C.Timezone

D.Hardware configuration


E.The system’s hostname




QUESTION 3


Which of the following commands reboots the system when using SysV init? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.shutdown -r now


B.shutdown -r "rebooting"


C.telinit 6


D.telinit 0


E.shutdown -k now "rebooting"





QUESTION 4


Which of the following are init systems used within Linux systems? (Choose THREE correct answers.)


A.startd


B.systemd


C.Upstart


D.SysInit


E.SysV init



QUESTION 5 : SIMULATION


Which file in the /proc filesystem lists parameters passed from the bootloader to the kernel? (Specify the file name only without any path.)






QUESTION 6


What information can the lspci command display about the system hardware? (Choose THREE correct answers.)


A.Device IRQ settings


B.PCI bus speed


C.System battery type


D.Device vendor identification


E.Ethernet MAC address



QUESTION 7


Which of the following commands brings a system running SysV init into a state in which it is safe to perform maintenance tasks? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.shutdown -R 1 now


B.shutdown -single now


C.init 1


D.telinit 1


E.runlevel 1



QUESTION 8


What is the first program that is usually started, at boot time, by the Linux kernel when using SysV init?



A./lib/init.so


B./sbin/init


C./etc/rc.d/rcinit


D./proc/sys/kernel/init


E./boot/init



QUESTION 9 : SIMULATION


Which command will display messages from the kernel that were output during the normal boot sequence?






QUESTION 10


Which of the following commands will write a message to the terminals of all logged in users?


A.bcast


B.mesg


C.print


D.wall


E.yell



QUESTION 11


Which of the following kernel parameters instructs the kernel to suppress most boot messages?


A.silent


B.verbose=0


C.nomesg


D.quiet


QUESTION 12


Which of the following options for the kernel’s command line changes the systemd boot target to rescue.target instead of the default target?


A.systemd.target=rescue.target


B.systemd.runlevel=rescue.target


C.systemd.service=rescue.target


D.systemd.default=rescue.target


E.systemd.unit=rescue.target



QUESTION 13


After modifying GNU GRUB’s configuration file, which command must be run for the changes to take effect?


A.kill -HUP $(pidof grub)


B.grub-install


C.grub


D.No action is required



QUESTION 14


Which of the following commands is used to update the list of available packages when using dpkg based package management?


A.apt-get update


B.apt-get upgrade


C.apt-cache update


D.apt-get refresh


E.apt-cache upgrade



QUESTION 15


Which of the following commands can be used to download the RPM package kernel without installing it?


A.yum download –no-install kernel


B.yumdownloader kernel


C.rpm –download –package kernel


D. rpmdownload kernel



QUESTION 16


When using rpm –verify to check files created during the installation of RPM packages, which of the following information is taken into consideration? (Choose THREE correct answers.)


A.Timestamps


B.MD5 checksums


C.Inodes


D.File sizes


E.GnuPG signatures



QUESTION 17


Which of the following is correct when talking about mount points?


A.Every existing directory can be used as a mount point.


B.Only empty directories can be used as a mount point.


C.Directories need to have the SetUID flag set to be used as a mount point.


D.Files within a directory are deleted when the directory is used as a mount point.



QUESTION 18


Which function key is used to start Safe Mode in Windows NT?


A.F10


B.F8


C.F6


D.Windows NT does not support Safe Mode



QUESTION 19


Which of the following environment variables overrides or extends the list of directories holding shared libraries?


A.LD_LOAD_PATH


B.LD_LIB_PATH


C.LD_LIBRARY_PATH


D.LD_SHARE_PATH


E.LD_RUN_PATH


QUESTION 20 : SIMULATION


Which world-writable directory should be placed on a separate partition in order to prevent users from being able to fill up the / filesystem? (Specify the full path to the directory.)




QUESTION 21


Which RPM command will output the name of the package which supplied the file /etc/exports?


A.rpm -F /etc/exports


B.rpm -qf /etc/exports


C.rpm -Kl /etc/exports


D.rpm -qp /etc/exports


E.rpm -qi /etc/exports



QUESTION 22 : SIMULATION


In which directory must definition files be placed to add additional repositories to yum?




QUESTION 23 : SIMULATION


What is the name of the main configuration file for GNU GRUB? (Specify the file name only without any path.)




QUESTION 24


When removing a package, which of the following dpkg options will completely remove the files including configuration files?


A.–clean


B.–delete


C.–purge


D.remove



QUESTION 25


Which file should be edited to select the network locations from which Debian installation package files are loaded?


A./etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg


B./etc/apt/apt.conf


C./etc/apt/apt.conf.d


D./etc/apt/sources.list


E./etc/dpkg/dselect.cfg




QUESTION 26 : SIMULATION


Which option to the yum command will update the entire system? (Specify ONLY the option name without any additional parameters.)




QUESTION 27 : SIMULATION


Which command will disable paging and swapping on a device? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)




QUESTION 28 : SIMULATION


Which Debian package management tool asks the configuration questions for a specific already installed package just as if the package were being installed for the first time? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)




QUESTION 29


Which of the following commands overwrites the bootloader located on /dev/sda without overwriting the partition table or any data following it?


A.dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512


B.dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=512 count=1


C.dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=440 count=1


D. dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda bs=440



QUESTION 30


Which of the following commands can be used to create a USB storage media from a disk image?


A.gdisk


B.dd


C.cc


D.fdisk


E.mount



QUESTION 31


In Bash, inserting 1>&2 after a command redirects


A.standard error to standard input.


B.standard input to standard error.


C.standard output to standard error.


D.standard error to standard output.


E.standard output to standard input.



QUESTION 32


What command will generate a list of user names from /etc/passwd along with their login shell?


A.column -s : 1,7 /etc/passwd


B.chop -c 1,7 /etc/passwd


C.colrm 1,7 /etc/passwd


D.cut -d: -f1,7 /etc/passwd


QUESTION 33


In a nested directory structure, which find command line option would be used to restrict the command to searching down a particular number of subdirectories?


A.-dirmax


B.-maxdepth


C.-maxlevels


D.-n


E.-s



QUESTION 34


Which of the following statements is correct regarding the command foo 1> bar?


A.The stdout from the command foo is appended to the file bar.


B.The stdout from the command foo overwrites the file bar.


C.The command foo receives its stdin from the file bar.


D.The command foo receives its stdin from the stdout of the command bar.


E.The stderr from the command foo is saved to the file bar.



QUESTION 35


Which of the following commands kills the process with the PID 123 but allows the process to "clean up" before exiting?


A.kill -PIPE 123


B.kill -KILL 123


C.kill -STOP 123


D.kill -TERM 123


QUESTION 36 : SIMULATION


Which signal is missing from the following command that is commonly used to instruct a daemon to reinitialize itself, including reading configuration files?


killall -s _______ daemonanation

QUESTION 37


What is the maximum niceness value that a regular user can assign to a process with the nice command when executing a new process?


A.9


B.19


C.49


D.99



QUESTION 38


Immediately after deleting 3 lines of text in vi and moving the cursor to a different line, which single character command will insert the deleted content below the current line?


A.i (lowercase)


B.P (uppercase)


C.p (lowercase)


D.U (uppercase)


E.u (lowercase)



QUESTION 39


A user accidentally created the subdirectory \dir in his home directory. Which of the following commands will remove that directory?


A.rmdir ‘~/\dir’


B.rmdir "~/\dir"


C.rmdir ~/’dir’


D.rmdir ~/\dir


E.rmdir ~/\\dir



QUESTION 40


In compliance with the FHS, in which of the directories are man pages found?


A./usr/share/man


B./opt/man


C./usr/doc/


D./var/pkg/man


E./var/man




QUESTION 41


Which of the following commands will send output from the program myapp to both standard output (stdout) and the file file1.log?


A.cat < myapp | cat > file1.log


B.myapp 0>&1 | cat > file1.log


C.myapp | cat > file1.log


D.myapp | tee file1.log


E.tee myapp file1.log



QUESTION 42


What is the purpose of the Bash built-in export command?


A.It allows disks to be mounted remotely.


B.It runs a command as a process in a subshell.


C.It makes the command history available to subshells.


D.It sets up environment variables for applications.


E.It shares NFS partitions for use by other systems on the network.



QUESTION 43


What is the output of the following command?  


echo "Hello World" | tr -d aieou



A.Hello World


B.eoo


C.Hll Wrld


D.eoo Hll Wrld



QUESTION 44


Which of the following characters can be combined with a separator string in order to read from the current input source until the separator string, which is on a separate line and without any trailing spaces, is reached?


A.<<


B.<|


C.!<


D.&<




QUESTION 45


Which of the following commands will NOT update the modify timestamp on the file /tmp/myfile.txt?


A.file /tmp/myfile.txt


B.echo "Hello" >/tmp/myfile.txt


C.sed -ie "s/1/2/" /tmp/myfile.txt


D.echo -n "Hello" >>/tmp/myfile.txt


E.touch /tmp/myfile.txt



QUESTION 46


What is the default nice level when a process is started using the nice command?


A.-10


B.10


C.20


D.0



QUESTION 47


What is the default action of the split command on an input file?


A.It will break the file into new files of 1,024 byte pieces each.


B.It will break the file into new files of 1,000 line pieces each.


C.It will break the file into new files of 1,024 kilobyte pieces each.


D.It will break the file into new files that are no more than 5% of the size of the original file.



QUESTION 48


What is the difference between the i and a commands of the vi editor?


A. i (interactive) requires the user to explicitly switch between vi modes whereas a (automatic) switches modes automatically.


B.i (insert) inserts text before the current cursor position whereas a (append) inserts text after the cursor.


C.i (independent rows) starts every new line at the first character whereas a (aligned rows) keeps the indentation of the previous line.


D.i (interrupt) temporarily suspends editing of a file to the background whereas a (abort) terminates editing.



QUESTION 49 : SIMULATION


Which command displays a list of all background tasks running in the current shell? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)



QUESTION 50


Which of the following commands moves and resumes in the background the last stopped shell job?


A.run


B.bg


C.fg


D.back


QUESTION 51


What is the effect of the egrep command when the -v option is used?


A.It enables color to highlight matching parts.


B.It only outputs non-matching lines.


C.It shows the command’s version information.


D.It changes the output order showing the last matching line first.



QUESTION 52


What does the ? symbol within regular expressions represent?


A.Match the preceding qualifier one or more times.


B.Match the preceding qualifier zero or more times.


C.Match the preceding qualifier zero or one times.


D.Match a literal ? character.



QUESTION 53


In the vi editor, how can commands such as moving the cursor or copying lines into the buffer be issued multiple times or applied to multiple rows?


A. By using the command :repeat followed by the number and the command.


B.By specifying the number right in front of a command such as 4l or 2yj.


C.By selecting all affected lines using the shift and cursor keys before applying the command.


D.By issuing a command such as :set repetition=4 which repeats every subsequent command 4 times.



QUESTION 54


Which of the following files, located in the user home directory, is used to store the Bash history?


A. .bash_history


B. .bash_histfile


C. .history


D. .bashrc_history


E. .history_bash

QUESTION 55 :SIMULATION


Which Bash environment variable defines in which file the user history is stored when exiting a Bash process? (Specify ONLY the variable name.)



QUESTION 56


Which of the following commands displays the contents of a gzip compressed tar archive?


A.gzip archive.tgz | tar xvf –


B.tar ztf archive.tgz


C.gzip -d archive.tgz | tar tvf –


D.tar cf archive.tgz



QUESTION 57


Which grep command will print only the lines that do not end with a / in the file foo?


A.grep ‘/$’ foo


B.grep ‘/#’ foo


C.grep -v ‘/$’ foo


D.grep -v ‘/#’ foo



QUESTION 58


Which of the following commands is used to change options and positional parameters for a running Bash?


A.history


B.set


C.bashconf


D.setsh


E.envsetup



QUESTION 59


Which of the following commands replaces each occurrence of ‘bob’ in the file letter with ‘Bob’ and writes the result to the file newletter?


A.sed ‘/bob/Bob’ letter > newletter


B.sed s/bob/Bob/ letter < newletter


C.sed ‘s/bob/Bob’ letter > newletter


D.sed ‘s/bob/Bob/g’ letter > newletter


E.sed ‘s/bob, Bob/’ letter > newletter


QUESTION 60


From a Bash shell, which of the following commands directly executes the instruction from the file /usr/local/bin/runme.sh without starting a subshell? (Please select TWO answers.)


A. source /usr/local/bin/runme.sh


B. . /usr/local/bin/runme.sh


C./bin/bash /usr/local/bin/runme.sh


D./usr/local/bin/runme.sh


E.run /usr/local/bin/runme.sh



QUESTION 61


Regarding the command:


nice -5 /usr/bin/prog


Which of the following statements is correct?


A./usr/bin/prog is executed with a nice level of -5.


B./usr/bin/prog is executed with a nice level of 5.


C./usr/bin/prog is executed with a priority of -5.


D./usr/bin/prog is executed with a priority of 5.



QUESTION 62


Which shell command is used to continue background execution of a suspended command?


A.&


B.bg


C.cont


D.exec


E.:&



QUESTION 63


Which of the following shell redirections will write standard output and standard error output to a file named filename?


A.2>&1 >filename


B.>filename 2>&1


C.1>&2>filename


D.>>filename


E.1&2>filename

QUESTION 64


In the vi editor, which of the following commands will copy the current line into the vi buffer?


A.c


B.cc


C.1c


D.yy


E.1y


QUESTION 65


Which of the following sequences in the vi editor saves the opened document and exits the editor? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.esc ZZ


B.ctrl :w!


C.esc zz


D.esc :wq!


E.ctrl XX



QUESTION 66


When starting a program with the nice command without any additional parameters, which nice level is set for the resulting process?


A.-10


B.0


C.10


D.20



QUESTION 67


Which of the following commands will reduce all consecutive spaces down to a single space?


A.tr ‘\s’ ‘ ‘ < a.txt > b.txt


B.tr -c ‘ ‘ < a.txt > b.txt


C.tr -d ‘ ‘ < a.txt > b.txt


D.tr -r ‘ ‘ ‘\n’ < a.txt > b.txt


E.tr -s ‘ ‘ < a.txt > b.txt






QUESTION 68


Which character, added to the end of a command, runs that command in the background as a child process of the current shell?


A.!


B.+


C.&


D.%


E.#



QUESTION 69


Which of the following commands will print the last 10 lines of a text file to the standard output?


A.cat -n 10 filename


B.dump -n 10 filename


C.head -n 10 filename


D.tail -n 10 filename



QUESTION 70


Which of the following commands prints a list of usernames (first column) and their primary group (fourth column) from the /etc/passwd file?


A.fmt -f 1,4 /etc/passwd


B.split -c 1,4 /etc/passwd


C.cut -d : -f 1,4 /etc/passwd


D.paste -f 1,4 /etc/passwd



QUESTION 71


Which of the following signals is sent to a process when the key combination CTRL+C is pressed on the keyboard?


A.SIGTERM


B.SIGINT


C.SIGSTOP


D.SIGKILL



QUESTION 72


What happens after issuing the command vi without any additional parameters?


A.vi starts and loads the last file used and moves the cursor to the position where vi was when it last exited.


B.vi starts and requires the user to explicitly either create a new or load an existing file.


C.vi exits with an error message as it cannot be invoked without a file name to operate on.


D.vi starts in command mode and opens a new empty file.


E.vi starts and opens a new file which is filled with the content of the vi buffer if the buffer contains text.

QUESTION 73


Which of the following command sets the Bash variable named TEST with the content FOO?


A.set TEST="FOO"


B.TEST = "FOO"


C.var TEST="FOO"


D.TEST="FOO"



QUESTION 74


Which variable defines the directories in which a Bash shell searches for executable commands?


A.BASHEXEC


B.BASHRC


C.PATH


D.EXECPATH


E.PATHRC


QUESTION 75


Which of the following commands determines the type of a file by using a definition database file which contains information about all common file types?


A.magic


B.type


C.file


D.pmagic


E.hash



QUESTION 76 SIMULATION


Which command is used in a Linux environment to create a new directory? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)




QUESTION 77


Which of the following commands prints all files and directories within the /tmp directory or its subdirectories which are also owned by the user root? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.find /tmp -uid root -print


B.find -path /tmp -uid root


C.find /tmp -user root -print


D.find /tmp -user root


E. find -path /tmp -user root print



QUESTION 78


When running the command


sed -e "s/a/b/" /tmp/file >/tmp/file


While /tmp/file contains data, why is /tmp/file empty afterwards?


A.The file order is incorrect. The destination file must be mentioned before the command to ensure redirection.


B.The command sed did not match anything in that file therefore the output is empty.


C.When the shell establishes the redirection it overwrites the target file before the redirected command starts and opens it for reading.


D.Redirection for shell commands do not work using the > character. It only works using the | character instead.



QUESTION 79


When given the following command line. echo "foo bar" | tee bar | cat


Which of the following output is created?


A.cat


B.foo bar


C.tee bar


D.bar


E.foo



QUESTION 80


Which of the following commands can be used to determine how long the system has been running? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.uptime


B.up


C.top


D.uname -u


E.time up



QUESTION 81


Which of the following are valid stream redirection operators within Bash? (Choose THREE correct answers.)


A.<


B.<<<


C.>


D.>>>


E.%>



QUESTION 82


After successfully creating a hard link called bar to the ordinary file foo, foo is deleted from the filesystem. Which of the following describes the resulting situation?


A.foo and bar would both be removed.


B.foo would be removed while bar would remain accessible.


C.foo would be removed. bar would still exist but would be unusable.


D.Both foo and bar would remain accessible.


E.The user is prompted whether bar should be removed, too.



QUESTION 83


After moving data to a new filesystem, how can the former path of the data be kept intact in order to avoid reconfiguration of existing applications? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.By creating an ACL redirection from the old to the new path of the data.


B.By creating a hard link from the old to the new path of the data.


C.By creating a symbolic link from the old to the new path of the data.


D.By running the command touch on the old path.


E.By mounting the new filesystem on the original path of the data.



QUESTION 84


Which of the following commands changes the ownership of file.txt to the user dan and the group staff?


A.chown dan/staff file.txt


B.chown dan:staff file.txt


C.chown -u dan -g staff file.txt


D. chown dan -g staff file.txt


QUESTION 85


Which of the following commands makes /bin/foo executable by everyone but writable only by its owner?


A.chmod u=rwx,go=rx /bin/foo


B.chmod o+rwx,a+rx /bin/foo


C.chmod 577 /bin/foo


D.chmod 775 /bin/foo


QUESTION 86


Which of the following commands can be used to search for the executable file foo when it has been placed in a directory not included in $PATH?


A.apropos


B.which


C.find


D.query


E. whereis



QUESTION 87


What does the command mount -a do?


A.It ensures that all file systems listed with the option noauto in /etc/fstab are mounted.


B.It shows all mounted file systems that have been automatically mounted.


C.It opens an editor with root privileges and loads /etc/fstab for editing.


D.It ensures that all file systems listed with the option auto in /etc/fstab are mounted.


E.It ensures that all file systems listed in /etc/fstab are mounted regardless of their options.



QUESTION 88


Which of the following settings for umask ensures that new files have the default permissions -rw-r—– ?


A.0017


B.0640


C.0038


D.0027



QUESTION 89


Which of the following is the device file name for the second partition on the only SCSI drive?


A./dev/hda1


B./dev/sda2


C./dev/sd0a2


D./dev/sd1p2



QUESTION 90


In order to display all currently mounted filesystems, which of the following commands could be used? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.cat /proc/self/mounts


B.free


C.mount


D.lsmounts


E.cat /proc/filesystems



QUESTION 91


Which of the following commands can be used to locate programs and their corresponding man pages and configuration files?


A.dirname


B.which


C.basename


D.query


E. whereis






QUESTION 92


Which of the following commands changes the number of days before the ext3 filesystem on /dev/sda1 has to run through a full filesystem check while booting?


A.tune2fs -d 200 /dev/sda1


B.tune2fs -c 200 /dev/sda1


C.tune2fs -i 200 /dev/sda1


D.tune2fs -n 200 /dev/sda1


E.tune2fs –days 200 /dev/sda1



QUESTION 93


Which type of filesystem is created by mkfs when it is executed with the block device name only and without any additional parameters?


A.ext2


B.ext3


C.ext4


D.XFS


E.VFAT



QUESTION 94


How many fields are in a syntactically correct line of /etc/fstab?


A.3


B.4


C.5


D.6


E.7




QUESTION 95 SIMULATION


Which command is used to create and initialize the files used to store quota information? (Specify ONLY the command without any path or parameters.)



QUESTION 96


Which of the following file permissions belong to a symbolic link?


A.-rwxrwxrwx


B.+rwxrwxrwx


C.lrwxrwxrwx


D.srwxrwxrwx


QUESTION 97


Creating a hard link to an ordinary file returns an error. What could be the reason for this?


A.The source file is hidden.


B.The source file is read-only.


C.The source file is a shell script.


D.The source file is already a hard link.


E.The source and the target are on different filesystems.




QUESTION 98


Which of the following commands creates an ext3 filesystem on /dev/sdb1? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A./sbin/mke2fs -j /dev/sdb1


B./sbin/mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1


C./sbin/mkfs -c ext3 /dev/sdb1


D./sbin/mke3fs -j /dev/sdb1



QUESTION 99


Which of the following commands will change the quota for a specific user?


A. edquota


B.repquota


C.quota -e


D.quota


QUESTION 100


Which utility would be used to change how often a filesystem check is performed on an ext2 filesystem without losing any data stored on that filesystem?


A.mod2fs


B.fsck


C.tune2fs


D.mke2fs


E.fixe2fs


QUESTION 101


Which of the following Linux filesystems preallocates a fixed number of inodes at the filesystem’s make/creation time and does NOT generate them as needed? (Choose TWO correct answers.)


A.ext3


B.JFS


C.ext2


D.XFS


E.procfs



QUESTION 102


What is the purpose of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard?


A.It is a security model used to ensure files are organized according to their permissions and accessibility.


B.It provides unified tools to create, maintain and manage multiple filesystems in a common way.


C.It defines a common internal structure of inodes for all compliant filesystems.


D.It is a distribution neutral description of locations of files and directories.







QUESTION 103


Which of the following commands lists the dependencies of a given dpkg package?


A. apt-cache depends-on package


B. apt-cache dependencies package


C. apt-cache depends package


D. apt-cache requires package



QUESTION 104


Which of the following options is used in a GRUB Legacy configuration file to define the amount of time that

the GRUB menu will be shown to the user?


A. hidemenu


B. splash


C. timeout


D. showmenu


QUESTION 105


What can the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) be used for? (Choose THREE correct answers.)

A. To create RAID 9 arrays.


B. To dynamically change the size of logical volumes.


C. To encrypt logical volumes.


D. To create snapshots.


E. To dynamically create or delete logical volumes.


QUESTION 106


Which of the following commands updates the linker cache of shared libraries?


A. mkcache


B. soconfig


C. mkldconfig


D. lddconfig


E. ldconfig


QUESTION 107


Which of the following commands lists all currently installed packages when using RPM package

management?


A. yum –query –all


B. yum –list –installed


C. rpm –query –all


D. rpm –list installed


QUESTION 108 :SIMULATION

Which umask value will result in the default access permissions of 600 (rw——-) for files and 700 (rwx——)

for directories? (Specify only the numerical umask value.)



QUESTION 109

What of the following statements are true regarding /dev/ when using udev? (TWO correct answers.)

  1. Entries for all possible devices get created on boot even if those devices are not connected.
  2. Additional rules for udev can be created by adding them to /etc/udev/rules.d/.
  3. When using udev, it is not possible to create block or character devices in /dev/ using mknod.
  4. The /dev/ directory is a filesystem of type tmpfs and is mounted by udev during system startup.
  5. The content of /dev/ is stored in /etc/udev/dev and is restored during system startup.

QUESTION 110

What is the difference between the i and a commands of the vi editor?

  1. (interactive) requires the user to explicitly switch between vi modes whereas a (automatic) switchesmodes automatically.
  2. i (insert) inserts text before the current cursor position whereas a (append) inserts text after the cursor.
  3. i (independent rows) starts every new line at the first character whereas a (aligned rows) keeps the indentation of the previous line.

D. i (interrupt) temporarily suspends editing of a file to the background whereas a (abort) terminates     editing.

QUESTION 111

Which of the following commands set the sticky bit for the directory /tmp? (Choose TWO correct answers.)

  1. chmod +s /tmp
  2. chmod +t /tmp
  3. chmod 1775 /tmp
  4. chmod 4775 /tmp 
  5. chmod 2775 /tmp


QUESTION 112

Which of the following commands shows the definition of a given shell command?

  1. where
  2. stat
  3. type
  4. case

QUESTION 113

What do the permissions -rwSr-xr-x mean for a binary file when it is executed as a command?

  1. The command is SetUID and it will be executed with the effective rights of the owner.
  2. The command will be executed with the effective rights of the group instead of the owner.
  3. The execute flag is not set for the owner. Therefore the SetUID flag is ignored.
  4. The command will be executed with the effective rights of the owner and group.
  5. QUESTION 114
  6. Which of the following pieces of information of an existing file is changed when a hard link pointing to that file is created?
  1. File size
  2. Modify timestamp
  3. Link count
  4. Inode number
  5. Permissions

QUESTION 115

During a system boot cycle, what program is executed after the BIOS completes its tasks?

  1. The bootloader
  2. The inetd program
  3. The init program
  4. The kernel

QUESTION 116

You have an updated RPM called screensaver-1.1.i386. rpm. You have version 1.0 installed. 

Using RPM, how do you view the changelog of this file to see if you should install the update?


  1. rpm -qp –changelog screensaver-1.1.i386. rpm
  2. rpm –changelog screensaver-1.1.i386. rpm
  3. rpm -qc screensaver-1.1.i386. rpm
  4. rpm -showchangelog screensaver-1.1.i386. rpm

QUESTION 117

You are installing Linux on a workstation for a new employee. Which partition should be largest?


A. / 

B. /boot

  1. /lib
  2. /usr

QUESTION 118

Which command will allow you to find a specific installed package?

  1. rpm — list rpmname
  2. rpm -qvl rpmname
  3. rpm rpmname
  4. rpm -qv rpmname
  5. rpm -f rpmname

QUESTION 119

You are building a server that will undergo many hardware and operating system upgrades. The server is the file server for all users on your 100 user network. Which directory should have its own mountpoint and/ or hard drive?

  1. /boot
  2. /sbin
  3. /home
  4. /etc

QUESTION 120

What file is read by the program ldconfig?

  1. /lib/ld.so
  2. /etc/ld.so.conf
  3. /etc/ld.so.cache
  4. /etc/modules.conf




QUESTION 121

You installed a beta rpm package, but are experiencing some problems with it. How can you remove this package?

  1. rpm -qe rpmname
  2. rpm -V –remove rpmname
  3. rpm -r rpmname
  4. rpm -d rpmname
  5. rpm -ev rpmname

QUESTION 122

As root you have navigated to directory /B. You wish to move all of the files and directories from directory / A to directory /B. Which of the following options would be the most appropriate command line to execute this task?

  1. cp /a/* .
  2. mv -f /A/* .
  3. mv -Rf /a/* .
  4. cp -f /a/* ..
  5. cp -rf /A/* /b/

QUESTION 123

What key sequence will suspend the current process and return you to a shell prompt?

A. Ctrl-z 

B. Ctrl-c

  1. Ctrl-x
  2. Ctrl-d

QUESTION 124

You want to save vi changes to the file myfile with :w!, but vi complains it can not write to the file.

Therefore, you want to check the write permissions on the file. To do this without leaving vi, you type:

  1. :!ls -l myfile
  2. :\ls -l myfile
  3. esc :ls -l myfile
  4. :?ls -l myfile

QUESTION 125

Which of the following GNU commands would be the most likely command you’d use to find the system load average?

  1. top
  2. nice
  3. loadavg
  4. cpustat
  5. ps

QUESTION 126

What is the disadvantage of using the command kill -9 ?

  1. A core dump file will be created.
  2. It affects the entire process group.
  3. It makes excessive use of system resources.
  4. The action can be blocked by buggy or malicious processes.
  5. The affected process is unable to clean up before exiting.


QUESTION 127

To prevent a command run as root from sending both standard out (stdout) and standard error (stderr) to any terminal or other file or device, which of the following strings should be appended to the command?

  1. >/dev/null
  2. >/dev/null 1>&2
  3. >/dev/null 2>&1 
  4. 1>&2 >/dev/null 
  5. 2>&1 >/dev/null


QUESTION 128

You want to the command foo to take its input from the file foobar and send its output to the program bar. Which of the following command lines will do this?

  1. foo < foobar | bar
  2. foo < foobar > bar
  3. foo | foobar > bar
  4. foo | bar < foobar
  5. foo > bar < foobar


QUESTION 129

Which of the following commands would display the lines containing capital letters form the file "turkey.txt"?

  1. cat turkey.txt|wc -|
  2. grep -n [A-Z] turkey.txt
  3. cat turkey.txt|wc -w [A-Z]
  4. grep -v [A-Z] < turkey.txt
  5. for [A-Z] in turkey.txt | count

QUESTION 130

What umask will set the file permissions on a newly created file to -rw-r–r– (644)?

A. 0002 

B. 0022 

C. 0224

D. 0246

QUESTION 131

What TWO permissions must a user have in order to run a shell script?

  1. read
  2. write
  3. execute
  4. browse on the directory
  5. users cannot run shell scripts


QUESTION 132

You have just added a CD-ROM drive (/dev/hdd) to your system and have added it to your fstab. Typically you can use which of the following commands to mount media in that drive to /mnt/cdrom?

  1. mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
  2. mount /dev/cdrom
  3. mount -t cdrom/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
  4. mount /mnt/cdrom
  5. automount /mnt/hdd /mnt/cdrom

QUESTION 133

In order to append the output of ls to a file called bazz, which of the following command lines would you use?

  1. ls > bazz
  2. ls >& bazz
  3. C. ls &> bazz

D. ls >> bazz

QUESTION 134

You need to create a simple hierarchy of directories: images/photos/summer/ottawa/. None of the directories on that path exists. What command will create all of the needed directories in one step?

  1. mkdir -r images/photos/summer/ottawa/
  2. mkdir -R images/photos/summer/ottawa/
  3. mkdir -p images/photos/summer/ottawa/
  4. mkdir -P images/photos/summer/ottawa/
  5. mkdir -m images/photos/summer/ottawa/

QUESTION 135

While using the vi editor, you wish to move ahead one page. You should press the control key and:

  1. A
  2. D
  3. F
  4. U

QUESTION 136 (AMBIGUOUS)

The command mkfs -t ext3 /dev/hdb1 -T largefile creates what size of inode?

  1. 4 kilobyte
  2. 1 megabyte
  3. 2 megabyte
  4. 4 megabyte


QUESTION 137

What is a reasonable command to uninstall a Debian package from your system?

  1. dpkg -Ra pkgname
  2. dpkg -R pkgname
  3. dpkg -r pkgname
  4. dpkg -ra pkgname

QUESTION 138

You want to install a new software package, but it is only available in RPM format and you are running Debian Linux. Which of the following would help you to install it on your system?

  1. alien
  2. apt-conf
  3. dselect
  4. cpio






QUESTION 139

You want to examine the changelog for the installed package postfix. Which command will display the changelog?

  1. rpm -Vc postfix
  2. rpm -qpil postfix
  3. rpm –changelog postfix
  4. rpm -q –changelog postfix
  5. rpm -qa –changelog postfix

QUESTION 140

You have finished updating and resolving dependencies for some source code. What command should you run before recompiling the code into binary form?

  1. make clean
  2. make all
  3. makedep
  4. make install

QUESTION 141

An installed package is broken. In order to go back to the previous version of the same package which RPM option should be used?

  1. –replacefiles
  2. –replacepkgs
  3. –oldpackage
  4. –nodeps

QUESTION 142

According to the File System Hierarchy Standard, the lost+found directory is used for:

  1. files with unknown owners
  2. missing device files found by/proc
  3. unknown binary files found by find
  4. unlinked files found by fsck

QUESTION 143

Which of the following commands will display the last 30 lines of /var/log/bigd.log as well as new content as it is appended to the file by another process?

  1. cut -30 -v /var/log/bigd.log
  2. head -30 -e /var/log/bigd.log
  3. tail -f -n 30 /var/log/bigd.log
  4. tac -30 /var/log/bigd.log
  5. cat -r -n 30 /var/log/bigd.log

QUESTION 144

Which of the following commands will find the string foo in the file filel.txt, regardless of foo being in upper or lowercase letters?

  1. cat file1.txt | grep -i foo
  2. cat file1.txt > grep -n foo
  3. grep -i foo | file1.txt
  4. grep -n file1.txt < foo
  5. grep -n foo file1.txt





QUESTION 145

Keyboards and mice are members of which class of USB devices?

  1. Communication Device Class
  2. Human Interface Device Class
  3. Mass Storage Device Class
  4. Data Interface Device Class

QUESTION 146

The command echo $! will produce what output?

  1. the process id of last background command
  2. the exit status of the last command
  3. the exit status of the last background command
  4. the process id of the current shell
  5. the name of the command being executed

QUESTION 147

Which of the following commands will change all CR-LF pairs in an imported text file, userlist.txt, to Linux standard LF characters and store it as newlist.txt?

  1. tr ‘\r\n’ ” < userlist.txt > newlist.txt
  2. tr -c ‘\n\r’ ” < newlist.txt > userlist.txt
  3. tr -d ‘\r’ < userlist.txt > newlist.txt
  4. tr ‘\r’ ‘\n’ userlist.txt newlist.txt
  5. tr -s ‘^M’ ‘^J’ userlist.txt newlist.txt


QUESTION 148

What command will print a list of usernames (first column) and their corresponding user id (uid, third column) from /etc/passwd?

  1. cut -d: -f1,3 /etc/passwd
  2. chop -c 1,3 /etc/passwd
  3. tac 1-3 /etc/passwd
  4. fmt -u /etc/passwd

QUESTION 149

Which of the following commands can be used to create a new file that is 100kB in size?

  1. dd
  2. file
  3. mkfile
  4. touch

QUESTION 150

When piping the output of find to the xargs command, what option to find is useful if the filenames have spaces in them?

  1. -rep-space
  2. -print0
  3. -nospace
  4. -ignore-space





QUESTION 151

Which option to the tee command will cause the output to be concatenated on the end of the output file instead of overwriting the existing file contents?

  1. -a
  2. -c
  3. –no-clobber
  4. continue

QUESTION 152

Consider the following commands


  1. $ nice -n 1 /usr/bin/somecommand
  2. $ nice -n 5 /usr/bin/somecommand
  3. $ nice -n 10 /usr/bin/somecommand

Which instance of somecommand is run with the highest priority?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. none, only superuser can change the priority

QUESTION 153

Which of the following commands makes /bin/foo executable by everyone but only writable by its owner?

  1. chmod 557 /bin/foo
  2. chmod o +rwx,a+rx /bin/foo
  3. chown 557 /bin/foo
  4. chmod 755 /bin/foo

QUESTION 154

Which command would run "make" in the background?

  1. make && bg
  2. make ; bg
  3. make &
  4. nohup make

QUESTION 155

Which of the following is very important when installing from source code? (select two)

A. Read all documentation included with the source code.

B. Reboot after installing all programs.

C. Manually check to see if all dependencies are met.

D. Use rpm or dpkg go verify the installation.

E. Do not install binaries as the root user.

QUESTION 156

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. John is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. He wants to change the modified date and time of the file private.txt to 11 Nov 2009 02:59:58 am. Which of the following commands will John use to accomplish his task? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose TWO answers.


  1. touch -d "11 Nov 2009 02:59:58 am" private.txt
  2. touch -t 200911110259.58 private.txt
  3. rm private.txt #11 Nov 2009 02:59:58 am
  4. touch private.txt #11 Nov 2009 02:59:58 am
  5. QUESTION 157

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. John is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. He stores his passwords in the password.txt file. He stores them in such a manner that in the password file, each word is separated with a delimiter colon (:) and the fifth word to the end of the line becomes the password of the user. If there is any colon from the fifth word to the end of the line, the colon will be used as the password. For example, a sample of a password.txt file is given below:

foo:bar:baz:qux:quuux one:two:three:four:five:six:seven alpha:beta:gamma:delta:epsilon:zeta:eta:teta

In the above example, the sample passwords will be as follows: quuux 

#From the first line five:six:seven 

#From the second line epsilon:zeta:eta:teta #From the third line

John wants to store the passwords from the password.txt file and send them to the management of Perfect

Solutions Inc. For this, he has to fetch the passwords from the password.txt file and store them into the Password_management.txt file using a Linux command. Which of the following commands can he use to accomplish this?

  1. cat password.txt > password_management.txt
  2. cut -d : -f 5- password.txt > password_management.txt
  3. cut -c 4-10 password.txt > password_management.txt
  4. sed -e ‘/^ *$/d’ password.txt > password_management.txt

QUESTION 158

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. John is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. He has recently backed up his entire Linux hard drive into the my_backup.tgz file. The size of the my_backup.tgz file is 800MB. Now, he wants to break this file into two files in which the size of the first file named my_backup.tgz.aa should be 600MB and that of the second file named my_backup.tgz.ab should be 200MB. Which of the following commands will John use to accomplish his task?

  1. split –verbose -b 200m my_backup.tgz my_backup.tgz
  2. split –verbose -b 200m my_backup.tgz my_backup.tgz
  3. split –verbose -b 600m my_backup.tgz my_backup.tgzaa
  4. split –verbose -b 600m my_backup.tgz my_backup.tgz

QUESTION 159

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. He is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. He is installing a new Debian package named my_package.deb. However, he wants to ensure that while upgrading my_package.deb, one of the parts of my_package.deb named fglrx-driver does not upgrade. Which of the following actions can he perform to accomplish his task?

Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.(2)

  1. Edit the /etc/apt/preferences file and write the following lines:

Package: fglrx-driver Pin: version 8.43.2-2

Pin-Priority: 1001

  1. Execute the following command: echo "fglrx-driver hold" | dpkg –set-selections
  2. Execute the following command: dpkg -S fglrx-driver
  3. Execute the following command: dpkg -s fglrx-driver



QUESTION 160

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. John is using a dual-CPU system with an Adaptec dual-AIC7895 SCSI controller. He wants to add new hardware to the existing Linux operating system. However, before doing so, he wants to verify which resources are being used by the existing devices so that he can check whether adding any new hardware can be a cause of a hardware/software conflict or not. Which of the following commands can John use to accomplish his task?

  1. cat /proc/interrupts
  2. cat /proc/partitions
  3. mount | column -t
  4. mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share

QUESTION 161

You want to verify the PGP signature of all headers and signatures associated with an RPM package.

Which of the following commands will you use to accomplish the task?

Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

  1. rpm -K
  2. rpm –checksig
  3. rpm -e
  4. rpm -V

QUESTION 162

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network. He is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. He wants to remove a debian packet foobar from his computer and have it maintained so that whenever he wants to install it from the stored files, he can do so. Which of the following commands can John use to accomplish his task? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.

  1. dpkg –clear-avail
  2. dpkg –remove
  3. dpkg -r
  4. dpkg –purge

QUESTION 163

John works as a Network Administrator for Perfect Solutions Inc. The company has a Linux-based network.

John is working as a root user on the Linux operating system. You want to run two programs, foo and bar. You also want to ensure that bar is executed if and only if foo has executed successfully. Which of the following command sequences will John use to accomplish the task?

  1. foo; bar;
  2. foo && bar;
  3. foo || bar;
  4. foo | bar;

QUESTION 164

Yesterday, you installed Samba from source. After reading all documentation on http://www.samba.org you now want to configure some network shares. Unfortunately, you can’t find samba’s configuration file smb.conf anywhere. Which of the following commands have the best chance of success to find your smb.conf file ? (choose the best 2 answers)

  1. find / -name smb.conf
  2. whereis smb.conf
  3. which smb.conf
  4. updatedb; locate smb.conf


QUESTION 165

Some rogue process has created thousands of files with extension .foo in /tmp, filling up the entire filesystem. After you kill the process and remove the homedirectory of the user who started this process you want to clean up /tmp. But you get the following error:

rm: argument list too long

Which of the following commands will allow you to remove all *.foo files in /tmp ? (choose the best answer)

  1. rm `ls | grep ‘.foo$’`
  2. ls *.foo | xargs rm
  3. ls | grep ‘.foo$’ | xargs rm
  4. xargs rm `ls | grep ‘.foo$’`

QUESTION 166

While running a program to compute the Biggest Prime Known To Men you discover that your system is getting a bit unresponsive. Running ‘top’ gives you the following information:

PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+         COMMAND 

9519 test 15 0 236 236 192 R 98.4 83.5 1228:55 primefind

Since the program has allready been running a long time and you’re sure it will spit out the answer soon, you don’t want to kill it. What other option do you have ? (choose the best answer)

  1. nice +10 -p 9519
  2. nice -10 -p 9519
  3. renice +10 -p 9519
  4. renice -10 -p 9519

QUESTION 167

You’re processing a file ‘allmostempty.txt’ with lots of empty lines. You want to get rid of these empty lines as they are totally useless for your purpose. Which command would you use? (choose the best answer)

  1. grep -v ‘^$’ < allmostempty.txt
  2. sed ‘s/^$//’ < allmostempty.txt
  3. grep ‘.+’ < allmostempty.txt
  4. sed -e ‘.+’ < allmostempty.txt

QUESTION 168

In Linux (and Unix in general) there’s often more than one way to get a job done. Which of the following command sequences is NOT a common way to leave the vi editor? (choose the best answer)

A. 😡 

B. :q!

  1. ZZ
  2. :qw!

QUESTION 169

Which of the following commands will give you the amount of diskspace used on the root filesystem in kilobytes ? (choose the best 2 answers)

  1. du -k /
  2. df -skx /
  3. df -k /
  4. du -skx /

QUESTION 170 SIMULATION

What command would you use to transform an existing ext2 filesystem into a journalled (ext3) filesystem without losing data? (Give only the command, without the path or any parameters) __________________.

QUESTION 171

You administer a system with quota enabled. The powers that be have asked you to add a new user sam. Sam should have the same amount of diskspace available as his colleague Mose. What command would you use? (choose the best answer)


  1. repquota -a sam -p mose
  2. edquota -p mose sam
  3. quotaon sam -p mose

D. quotactl -n sam -p mose

QUESTION 172

Which command would you put in your ~/.profile to ensure that all new files you create are readable by people who are in the same group while anybody else has no access at all? (choose the best answer)

A. umask 640 

B. ulimit 750

  1. umask 027
  2. ulimit 640


QUESTION 173

You want all users in the group ‘operators’ to be able to mount and unmount filesystems and nobody else.

Which commands would accomplish that? (choose the best 2 answers)

  1. chgrp operators /sbin/*mount; chmod 1750 /sbin/*mount
  2. chgrp operators /sbin/*mount; chmod u+s,o-rwx /sbin/*mount
  3. chgrp operators /sbin/*mount; chmod g+s,o-rwx /sbin/*mount

D. chgrp operators /sbin/*mount; chmod 4750 /sbin/*mount

QUESTION 174 SIMULATION

You desperately need a program on your Debian box, but all you can find on google is an rpm package for RedHat. What command will allow you to (try to )install this rpm package anyway? (Give the command without the path or any options)


QUESTION 175

What is the purpose of the & character at the end of a command line?

  1. It causes standard error to be unbuffered.
  2. It causes the command to be run in the background of the current shell.
  3. It puts the command under the job control facilities of the current shell.
  4. It causes the command to be run as a child of the initial login shell of the user.

QUESTION 176

Which of the following commands will produce the following output?




  1. jobs
  2. proclist
  3. netstat
  4. ps




QUESTION 177

What does the ? symbol mean in the following grep regular expression:grep ‘^d[aei]\?d$’ /usr/share/dict/ words

  1. Match the preceding character set ([aei]) one or more times.
  2. Match the preceding character set ([aei]) zero or more times.
  3. Match the preceding character set ([aei]) zero or one times.
  4. Match a literal ?symbol.

QUESTION 178

Which signal is sent to a suspended process in order to have it resume execution?

  1. CONT
  2. EXEC
  3. RESM
  4. UNSP

QUESTION 179

Which vi command will change modes so that text can be entered by typing in the keyboard?

  1. e
  2. i
  3. t
  4. w

QUESTION 180

What is the purpose of the xargs command?

  1. It passes argument to an X server.
  2. It will read standard input and build up commands lines to execute.
  3. It helps shell scripts take variable argument lists.
  4. It will ask a question, graphically, and return the answer to the shell.
  5. It will allow users to specify long options for commands that normally only accept short options.

QUESTION 181

Once a shell variable has been created, how can the variable be removed from the environment?

  1. VAR=
  2. set -d VAR
  3. set -u VAR

D. unset VAR

QUESTION 182

Which of the following is a limitation of the cut command?

  1. The cut command can only select output by field position.
  2. The cut command cannot reorder fields.
  3. The cut command only works on ASCII text.
  4. The cut command will always print one line of output for every line of input.

QUESTION 183

Which of the following commands will print the first few lines of a text file to the shell?

A. cat -n 10 filename 

B. dump -n 10 filename

  1. head -n 10 filename
  2. print -n 10 filename




QUESTION 184

Which command will convert all tab characters in a file to spaces and print that to standard out?

A. convert 

B. expand

  1. retab
  2. untab

QUESTION 185

In order to use the output of ls to overwrite a file called bazz, which of the following command lines would you use?

  1. ls>bazz
  2. ls>&bazz
  3. ls&>bazz

D. ls>>bazz

QUESTION 186

In bash, inserting 2>&1 after a command redirects

  1. standard error to standard input.
  2. standard input to standard error.
  3. standard output to standard error.